Reynold Conger, ​Author, books

What is a Beehive?

Most bees are housed in a Langstroth beehive. This consists of a stack of two boxes on a base. These boxes are large enough to each hold 10 frames that are designed to encourage the bees to build their combs on the frames. Dimensions are such that there is plenty of clearance for the bees to move around, but not enough to encourage the bees to build combs outside the frames.

A lid closes the top. and a slot in the base provides an entrance for the bees.

The wax combs are used both to raise new bees and to store honey.

Early in the summer when the beekeeper sees the bees storing large amounts of honey, he will remove the lid and cover the top box with a mesh called the queen excluder. The holes are large enough to allow worker bees to crawl through, but too small for the queen. On top of the queen excluder, the beekeeper places another box full of empty frames called the super.

Because the queen can not get into the super to lay eggs there, the workers can lay up combs full of pure honey. This is the honey that the beekeeper harvests in late summer or early fall.

Of course, the lid must be put on top of the super.

Bessie Bee

I like the


flower. It is so

bright red and smells good.

I am told it is God's favorite plant. The Jewish high priest was instructed to decorate the hem of his robe with embroidered pomegranate flowers. Some say that the forbidden fruit in the Garden of Eden was not an apple but a pomegranate.

​​​About Bees

Bees are a social insect that lives in colonies. Apiculture is the art of keeping bees. Each colony consists of one queen, about 20,000 worker bees and a few hundred drones. They live in a cavity called a hive. The hive may be a hollow tree, or a set of boxes supplied by the beekeeper. When a hive is over crowded, bees swarm. Occasionally a honey bee swarm will make their hive in the wall of a building or some other place where they are not desired.

The queen is the only fertile female. She lays all the eggs, up to 2000 per day.

Worker bees are infertile females. They tend to the queen, keep house, care for the larvae, guard the hive, forage for nectar and pollen, and carry water to their sisters in the hive.

Drones are the male bee. Their primary duty is to mate with new queen bees. It is suspected they have other duties, but none have been verified. They lack a stinger. Each fall they are ejected from the hive to die in the cold so the queen and workers can survive on the stored honey.

Honey and pollen are the bees' food. Beekeepers are careful only to harvest the excess honey, leaving enough to enable the colony to survive the winter.

New Queen Hatched

 As a result of my catastrophic loss of bee colonies over the winter, I have one mature hive from which I hope to harvest about 100 pounds of honey if all goes well. Of course, if the hive swarms, there will be fewer worker bees left and my honey yield will be greatly decreased.

Two weeks ago, I checked that hive and found three queen cells. That is a sure sign the hive is preparing to swarm. 

Bees swarm when they feel cramped for space, The queen and half of the worker bees depart in search of a new home. Before they swarm, they brood several new queens that are scheduled to emerge a day or two after the swarm leaves. This provides the remaining workers with a new queen.

To prevent my hive from swarming, I removed the three frames with queen cells and put them in a nuc box (a miniature bee hive). I added a frame of honey and a frame with capped brood (maturing larvae). I brushed enough worker bees to care for the queens and brood.

Today I opened the nuc box to find the queen cells gone. This means queens have either emerged or died. (First queen out kills the rest in any event.) The workers had cleaned up the empty cells, but there was evidence of where one queen cell had been.

I did not see the queen, but queens are not always easy to see.

I moved the frames into a full size hive box along with five empty frames.

Next week, I will reopen that hive box. I hope to see young larvae and/or fresh capped brood. If so, it will mean the young queen is on the job laying eggs. If there is no new reproduction, It will mean all three queen larvae died.

Watch this page of for the latest news about this new queen.

​Bee Page

A fun page about bees and bee keeping for bee keepers and others.

After you have enjoyed this page, please visit the rest of Reynold's website.

Barbara Bee

The flower of the

prickly pear

cactus opens

yellow and turns

red as the days go by.

It has so many stamen filled with pollen that gathering nectar is like swimming in pollen. I love to emerge with my coat covered in pollen.

Buehla Bee

I prefer



that is the


flower for



I have to work a little harder than some other flowers because I must extract nectar from each individual section of the blossom, but it is worth it to taste the delicate flavor of clover nectar.

Pure clover honey is very light colored and has a delicate flavor that many honey-lovers prefer.

Bee's Favorite Flower 

Honey Flavors

The flavor and color of honey is dependent on the flower from which the nectar is collected. On a given day, a foraging bee will only collect nectar from a single species of flower. 

If the bee hive is in the middle of a large field containing a single crop, such as clover, All most all of the bees will be collecting nectar from that flower.

When the beekeeper takes a frame from the super, he will find mostly clover honey in the comb. He will extract the honey and sell it as clover honey or whatever the species of flowers is in the field.

The flavors will range from delicate to strong. The color will range from a very light yellow to a dark amber.

Most small beekeepers such as myself keep the hives where the bees can access a variety of flowers. On a given day, there may be bees visiting several different species of flowers, and a bee may switch species of flowers from day to day. My bees produce a mix of different types of honey. The honey produced by my bees is rather dark and very rich in flavor. I sell it as honey from mixed flowers.

Also check out the rest of Reynold's website starting with the home page.

Bee Feeding

In spite of our unusually cold weather, we had a couple of days warm enough to feet the bees. The feeders were almost empty. The bees took exception to me opening their hives, but they sure were glad to see the sugar syrup going into their feeder.

As mentioned in the column on the left, the bees live in the winter on their stored honey, but supplementary feed in the form of a sugar syrup keep them healthier and helps them to get a jump start on honey production in the spring.

Bee Sting Remedy

Bees do not bite, but they sure can sting. Worker bees have a barb on their stinger so they can only sting once. Drones have no stinger.

If you get stung, apply toothpaste to the sting. It will quickly reduce the sting and will minimize swelling.